Botulinum toxin is a drug that allows you to temporarily inhibit the action of the facial mimic muscles by reducing the formation of expression lines. There are 7 types of botulinum neurotoxin (A, B, C1, D, E, F and G) derived from strains of the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum that are highly selected.
Those strains that are applicable to the human being and that are currently on the market are:
- Type A (Vistabex, Vistabel, Botox, Botoxin, Dysport, Azzalure and Bocouture)
- Type B (Myobloc and Neurobloc).
It was initially used in medicine to prevent neuromuscular spasms of the eyelids and to correct strabismus. But, starting in 1987 it began to be used in the United States also in the field of aesthetic medicine. In Italy the use of botulinum toxin was authorized by the Ministry of Health in 2004. The use was limited to a single type of drug called:
- Vistabex (in Italy)
- Botox (in the United States)
- Vistabel (in France)
Botulinum toxin is indicated for the treatment of expression lines on the upper part of the face, although the drug has only been approved for the treatment of glabellar lines (i.e., wrinkles that form between the eyebrows). Specifically, it is indicated for the treatment of mimic wrinkles (expression lines), frontal wrinkles, wrinkles and glabellar furrows (between the eyebrows), crow’s feet (wrinkles around the eyes), gummy smile (gum smile), axillary hyperhidrosis, hyperhidrosis of feet and hands.